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### Table of Contents

# Curves

## Introduction

- A curve orientation is given by the succession if its points. For example, a straight line is oriented from its first point towards its second point. This orientation is relevant when defining contact matrices, for instance. For 2D rigid-deformable contact, a curve must be defined with “area to the left”, which means that the normal must point towards the inside of the matter (also applicable with
`Surfaces`

in 3D). - The normal of a curve is defined such as $\boldsymbol{t} \wedge \boldsymbol{n} = (0,0,1)$.

## Line: Straight Segment

A `Line`

(line segment) is defined with its two vertices.

line = curveset.add( Line(number, pt1, pt2) )

with

`number` | user number (unique among Curves and $\ge 1$) |

`pt1` ,`pt2` | the 2 `Points` used as vertices |

## Arc: Arc of Circle

An `Arc`

of circle is defined using three points, as shown on the figure.

arc = curveset.add( Arc(number, pt1, pt2, pt3) )

with

`number` | user number (unique among Curves and $\ge 1$) |

`pt1` ,`pt2` ,`pt3` | the 3 `Points` |

## Cubic Spline

### "Open" Cubic Spline

spl = curveset.add( CubicSpline(number, [pt1, pt2, pt3, pt4]) ) spl.useLsTangent() # tangents are calculated # using local reconstruction [DEFAULT] spl.useLittTangents() # tangents are calculated # using Litt/Beckers lectures

with

`number` | user number (unique among Curves and $\ge 1$) |

`pt1` ,`pt2` ,`pt3` ,… | the list of `Points` |

### "Closed" Cubic Spline

To close a spline, the first and last points of the list must be the same.

spl = CubicSpline(number, [pt1, pt2, pt3, pt4, ..., pt1])

### Spline-reconstruction based on a mesh

It is possible to construct a spline based on the mesh of a line. This way, a smooth approximation of this mesh if obtained.

spl = CubicSpline(number, obj)

where `obj`

is a meshed object.

## Circle: Full Circle

A circle is defined with its center and radius (this function is only defined in the $z=0$ plane)

circ2d = curset.add( Circle(number, centre, R) )

with

`number` | user number (unique among Curves and $\ge 1$) |

`centre` | centre `Point` |

`R` | radius |

The orientation of the `Circle`

can be inverted (and so will its tangent and normal used for contact):

circ2d.reverse()

## NURBS

A Non-Uniform Rational Basis Spline (N.U.R.B.S.) is defined as:

nur = curset.add( NurbsCurve(number) ) nur.setDegree(degree) nur.push(pt1); nur.pushWeight(weight1) nur.push(pt2); nur.pushWeight(weight2) nur.pushKnot(knot1) nur.pushKnot(knot2)

where

`number` | user number (unique among Curves and $\ge 1$) |

`pt1` , `pt2` | `Points` used as supports |

`degree` | degré de la coube |

`weight1` , `weight2` | weights |

`knot1` , `knot2` | knot vector |

## PythonCurve: Python-interpreted Curves

If a `Curve`

is not implemented in Metafor, it can be programmed in python using the generic Curve called `PythonCurve`

.

The method `.push()`

is used to add points.

`PythonCurve`

possesses four member functions that can be overloaded. The method named `setEval(fct)`

is used to defined the evaluation python function. The methods named `setTg`

, `setDTg`

and`setLen()`

respectively define the tangent, its derivative and the curvilinear abscissa. The function `setEval(fct)`

is the only one required to mesh the curve, when the other three are used for contact.

*Example:*

See `toolbox.curves`

which defines a `Parabola`

. The input file `apps.qs.parabola`

is an example of application.

from toolbox.curves import Parabola parab = curset.add(Parabola(1, pt1, pt6, pt2))

These lines create a parabola #1, based on the three previously defined points `pt1`

, `pt6`

and `pt2`

.